Author: jasperfarm

SG Oznayim Breve’s Kaitlyn 1*M

SG Oznayim Breve’s Kaitlyn 1*M

SG Oznayim Breve's Kaitlyn 1*M 4 yrs 3rd freshening
SG Oznayim Breve's Kaitlyn 1*M 4 yrs 3rd freshening

Mar 28, '05 to Sept 10, '16
N1357691
G6S Normal

4-04 VG87 (VE+V)
5-04 VG87 (VE+V)

SSS:  *B Wynneshire BBK’s Sleek Baron
SS: CH *B Wynneshire Baron’s Starbuck
SSD:  GCH 11*M Wynneshire Designer Josette
S:  *B Wynneshire Starbuck’s Breve
SDS:  *B Wynneshire BBK’s Sleek Baron
SD:  GCH 4*M Wynneshire Baron’s Lil Mousse
SDD:  GCH 3*M Wynnesire Legend’s Willow

DSS:  ++*B Brown Sugar’s Double Stuff
DS:  Royal-Blue Double Trouble
DSD:  Painter’s Naughty Notion
D:  Royal Blue DT I’m No Joke
DDS:  SG ++*B Kastdemur’s MPA Trademark
DD:  Royal Blue TM Ringside Gossip
DDD:  13*M Longman’s Romeo’s Rachel

5yrs 4th freshening SG Oznayim WSB Kaitlyn 1*M
5yrs 4th freshening SG Oznayim WSB Kaitlyn 1*M
4yrs 3rd freshening SG Oznayim WSB Kaitlyn 1*M
4yrs 3rd freshening SG Oznayim WSB Kaitlyn 1*M

ADGA Genetics

Kaitlyn passed away peacefully Saturday morning, September 10, 2016, on a beautiful early fall day on a bed of soft green grass.  She was content in her final days with us.

We are indebted to Naomi Counides of the Oznayim herd in Idaho for allowing us to have Kaitlyn.  Kaitlyn is the littermate sister of our first buck, Oznayim Breve’s Brio.  We love Kaitlyn’s tall, long, and strong dairy frame as well as her beautifully plumb teats and wide teat orifices for easy hand-milking, which is a good thing as she is a very productive doe!  In 2013, as an 8 year old, she carried quads and freshened with a huge, beautifully attached udder (pictured below).  Even with heavy pregnancies, Kaitlyn continues to stand on strong legs and feet.  Kaitlyn quickly earned her milking star during her first year on DHI milk test, and in the fall of 2009, ADGA awarded Kaitlyn the SG (Superior Genetics) designation. Visit our Jasper Farm Nubians Facebook page to see more pictures of Kaitlyn and our other goats.

Testing Status

CAE:  negative 2016, 2015, ‘14,‘12, ‘11, ‘10, ‘09, ‘08
CL: negative 2009, 2008
TB: negative 2008
Brucellosis: negative 2008

*B Wynneshire Starbuck’s Breve
*B Wynneshire Starbuck’s Breve

Kidding History

2016 - 2 bucklings
2013 Fall  - 1 buckling, 2 doelings
2013 Spring - 2 bucklings, 2 doelings
2012 - 1 buckling
2011 - 2 bucklings, 1 doeling

GCH 11*M Wynneshire Designer Josette
GCH 11*M Wynneshire Designer Josette
Jasper Farm OM Buddha (polled)

Jasper Farm OM Buddha (polled)

Jasper Farm OM Buddha
Jasper Farm OM Buddha

Born March 27, 2016 N1790897
G6S normal by parentage

SSS: Maple View Fawn’s Adonis
SS: Oznayim Adonis’ Dave
SSD: Oznayim WSB Julia
S: Oznayim Mitch
SDS: *B Wynneshire Starbuck’s Breve
SD: Oznayim O.Man Penny
SDD: Oznayim WSB Julia

SSS:  *B Wynneshire Starbuck’s Breve
SS: Oznayim WSB Baba LA 85 VV+
SSD:  Rosethyme Flash Cinnamon
D:  SG Jasper Farm Baba’s Aylie
DDS:  *B Haf-Hidden-Acres Bryson’s Hero
DD:  2*M SG Bryson Branch BH Lucky Dollar LA 88 VVEV
DDD:  1*M Bryson Branch Grace Rose  LA 91 EEEE

Jasper Farm OM Buddha

ADGA Genetics

We were lucky enough to get to use Buddha for a breeding here before he went to his new home in the fall of 2016!

Suppliers

Suppliers

These are all excellent suppliers.  I vary who I order from based on who has the particular combination of items I need.  I tend to gravitate to Get Culture for my cultures and rennet, as they have more types of cultures and more options in bulk.  I love the yogurt cultures from New England Cheesemaking, as well as their incredible resource of recipes.  Any of them offer a variety of molds for pressing and draining cheeses – there’s a lot of neat ones out there.  I have found that buying different molds can be a bit addictive for me.  🙂

Get Culture

New England Cheesemaking

Glengarry Cheesemaking

The Cheesemaker

Finishing Jack Cheese with Press

Finishing Jack Cheese with Press

     These are the final phases of monterey jack cheese using a pre-made cheese mold and a cheese press.  If you want to make your own jack cheese and are missing the first steps, find them here.

Line your cheese mold with cheesecloth (butter muslin, etc). Scoop the curds into the mold.  If you would like to use the salt, here’s where you sprinkle that one tablespoon into the curds, trying to distribute it evenly between scoops.  I do like to use the salt, but I have been known to forget it, and still enjoyed the cheese.

Fold the extra cheesecloth over the top, place your follower, and press at 5 pounds pressure for 30 minutes.

After the first 30 minutes, remove the cheese from the mold, carefully peel back the cheesecloth, turn the cheese over, re-wrap, and press at 15 pounds for about 12 hours.

Remove the cheese from the press and place it on plate to air-dry, to harden the exterior a bit.

I like to use a piece of cross-stitch craft plastic to allow the cheese to breathe on the bottom.  The length of time to dry off the exterior can vary depending on the climate, both outside and in the house!  Watch for 1 to 4 days and flip the cheese over at least every 12 hours.  This stage is challenging in very humid weather, and if you get a bit of grey fuzz, pour a bit of vinegar over a clean cloth and wipe it off.

Here’s a good comparison below, between the cheese fresh out of the mold and after it’s hardened.  You can see the difference in color, but also in size.

Natural Rind

There is the beautiful attraction of a natural rind that you lovingly cultivate with a rub of spices, paprika or cayenne or powdered thyme, with a rich olive oil, with an aromatic beer or wine – the sky is the limit!  Rub your cheese about once a week for the first month of aging, and after that just maintain the rind.  A natural rind requires the humidity level to be more spot-on – too much, extraneous molds appear, too little, the cheese can dry out rapidly.  If you notice any cracks appear, get the humidity around the cheese up by adjusting its micro-climate with a more covered container or slipping it into a large ziploc bag, leaving the bag unzipped or it will be too humid.  To address unwanted mold growth, a firm pastry brush or a clean towel can be used to remove some of all of the mold.  Sometimes this gets all the mold – if it doesn’t, you can dab the mold spots with a brine solution or vinegar (don’t overly-moisten the cheese).

I recommend aging a natural rind jack cheese for a minimum of 2 months…and if you are using a strong-flavored rub, aging up to 2 years can make for a powerful cheese!

Wax

The wax provides a great security blanket to moderate humidity and hold off un-welcome mold growth while saying good-bye to the creative possibilities of the natural rind.

The size of this cheese dips nicely into my pot of wax, so I prefer to dip this cheese (rather than brushing on wax).

At medium heat, melt your wax – this is a pretty fast process so keep an eye on it!

Dip one side, let it dry, then the other, let it dry.  You will likely need a minimum of 2 coats.  If the wax doesn’t meet in the middle, as pictured, dip the cheese on its side and roll it a bit (but don’t drop it in the wax!).

Write a note with the name of the cheese, and most importantly, the date of waxing, place it on one side and wax it on.  This is so helpful because if you are like me, you will quickly lose track of all those dates you thought you’d never forget!

Pop the cheese in your “cave” (aging fridge), and turn it over whenever you can, hopefully at a minimum once a week.

Age for 1 to 4 months.  You can take a test nibble by slicing a tiny piece and then re-sealing with wax to continue aging.

 

Finishing Jack No Press

Finishing Jack No Press

     These are the final phases of monterey jack cheese using your own improvised pressing method (no pre-made cheese press).  If you want to make your own jack cheese and are missing the first steps, you can find them here.

Line your colander with cheesecloth (butter muslin, etc).  Place it over the sink or another container as I have done above, and ladle the curds into the colander.  A large slotted spoon works well for this, or a strainer.

If you would like to use the salt, here’s where you sprinkle that one tablespoon over the top of the curds, and gently mix it in.  I do like to use the salt, but I have been known to forget it, and still enjoyed the cheese.

Pull your cheesecloth together to create a nice snug mass, the tighter the better. Place it on a flat surface where it’s OK for whey to drain off.  

Twist the top closed and cover with a flat surface that can distribute weight evenly.  Balance a weight of 5 to 10 pounds on top for 30 min to an hour.  Flip the cheese over and balance 20 pounds about 2 hours.

Then flip one last time to press at 20 pounds for about 12 hours.

In the pictures I used our off-the-wall cheese press.  You can use your own weights.  In our 109+ year old house (plus 2 small energetic boys and a spazzy dog), I have come downstairs to some real messes!  So…if you use your own creative set-up (which I think is awesome), I do have a few recommendations.  They may be big duh’s, but just to spare you in case you are like me!  

  • Don’t use anything breakable.
  • If you use water, which is a great route, use something seal-able, like a plastic gallon jug.
  • Set it up over something to catch the curds if the worst case scenario does happen.
  • Don’t trust the balance to “if no one breathes within 20 feet it’ll hold”…test it out with a couple hops!

After the pressing, remove your young cheese from the cheesecloth and set up for a bit of drying and hardening-off.  I use an open container with a bit of craft cross-stitch plastic at the bottom for a tiny bit of breathability.

This “hardening-off” phase can take 1 (in dry weather) to 4 (summer in Iowa!) days.  If you get any of that fuzzy grey mold, promptly attack it with a bit of clean cloth drenched in vinegar.

 

Once you have a dry exterior, it is time to prepare your natural rind, or wax the cheese, and whichever you choose, for the cheese to go into your aging cave at about 52 degrees/high humidity.

Natural Rind

There is the beautiful attraction of a natural rind that you lovingly cultivate with a rub of spices, paprika or cayenne or powdered thyme, with a rich olive oil, with an aromatic beer or wine – the sky is the limit!  Rub your cheese about once a week for the first month of aging, and after that just maintain the rind.  A natural rind requires the humidity level to be more spot-on – too much, extraneous molds appear, too little, the cheese can dry out rapidly.  If you notice any cracks appear, get the humidity around the cheese up by adjusting its micro-climate with a more covered container or slipping it into a large ziploc bag, leaving the bag unzipped or it will be too humid.  To address unwanted mold growth, a firm pastry brush or a clean towel can be used to remove some of all of the mold.  Sometimes this gets all the mold – if it doesn’t, you can dab the mold spots with a brine solution or vinegar (don’t overly-moisten the cheese).

I recommend aging a natural rind jack cheese for a minimum of 2 months…and if you are using a strong-flavored rub, aging up to 2 years can make for a powerful cheese!

Wax

The wax provides a great security blanket to moderate humidity and hold off un-welcome mold growth while saying good-bye to the creative possibilities of the natural rind.

For this flatter cheese, larger in diameter than my mold, it is easiest for me to paint on my wax, which is in a pot as shown below.  If you are going to make a lot of cheeses this size, I suggest trying a flat skillet/saute type pan.

At medium heat, melt your wax – this is a pretty fast process so keep an eye on it!

Paint or dip one side, let it dry, then the other, let it dry.  You will likely need a minimum of 2 coats.

Write a note with the name of the cheese, and most importantly, the date of waxing, place it on one side and wax it on.  This is so helpful because if you are like me, you will quickly lose track of all those dates you thought you’d never forget!

Pop the cheese in your “cave” (aging fridge), and turn it over whenever you can, hopefully at a minimum once a week.

Age for 1 to 4 months.  You can take a test nibble by slicing a tiny piece and then re-sealing with wax to continue aging.

Jack Cheese

Jack Cheese

   This creamy mild cheese is a good starting point for trying out your cheese press – but also, you can make it without a cheese press!  I’ll show both versions. There’s a great quick turn-around on this cheese too – ready in 1 to 4 months.

2 gallons (give or take a bit) whole goat milk

¼ teaspoon mesophilic-thermophilic culture (Danisco MA4002)

½ tsp liquid rennet, dissolved in ¼ cup cool water

1 tblspn non-iodized salt, optional

Heat the milk to 88 deg.  Once it has reached 88 deg, add the culture. When using the powdered cultures, it is a good practice to sprinkle it across the top and wait a few minutes before stirring it in, allowing it to begin its transition to becoming one with the milk and avoiding clots.

Warm the milk a bit to 90 deg.  Set your timer for 30 minutes, allowing the milk to ripen at circa 90 deg.

After 30 minutes, add the rennet (dissolved in cool water).

Let the milk sit at 90 deg for 30 to 45 minutes, waiting for the curd to develop a clean break.

After 45 minutes, check for your clean break.

Cut the curds in small ¼ inch cubes.  First horizontal, then vertical.  Then rotate the pot 45 deg (or just rotate it in your mind!) and cut at diagonal angles, to bisect/trisect the tall ½ inch curds you have just created (demonstrated in lower right pic).

Once you have finished cutting, stir gently off and on over a period of about 30 minutes, while slowly increasing the heat to about 100 deg.

Then maintain the 100 deg temp for about 30 minutes, again stirring off and on to keep the warm curds from matting together.  During this second period, let the temperature climb to 105-107 deg.

The pictures below were taken during this first hour of cooking the curds.

Now you have one more chunk of 30 minutes at the slightly elevated temp – anywhere from 100 to 107 deg is fine.  If you find that the curds are still soft, as in a silken tofu-type texture, opt for the higher temperature.  If you stay within that temperature range, it is very unlikely that you will over-cook the curds.

Hopefully the picture to the left will give you a good idea of what the curds will look like as you are approaching the pressing stage.  It doesn’t give you an idea of the feel though, if this is your first time working with cooked curds. There should be a firm springiness – for lack of a better comparison (someone, help me with one, please!) – like one of the softer-type gummy worms.  Gummy bear firmness is too firm – all is likely not lost, just get the curds out of the whey right then and proceed with the next steps, without the next 30 minutes of cooking.

At this point the curds will be settling to the bottom of the pot with a significant amount of whey on top of them.  Pour this whey into another container, getting as close to the curds as you can without starting an avalanche of curds!  OK, perhaps that is dramatized a bit – but you know what I mean.  If you prefer, you can use a sanitized pyrex cup (or anything) to scoop the whey out.

If you can, save the whey to make ricotta.  Paying attention to how your curds are looking and feeling, allow the curds to sit in the remaining whey at about 100 deg for the next 30 minutes.  To really get the whole 30 minutes in, try not to let the temp go too high.  Here’s where you balance a desire to acidify the curds a bit more (for the smooth but springy texture in your cheese) while not over-cooking the curds.  So as you can tell, if you notice those curds getting more solid, move on to the next step – do not continue waiting.

For home production, you do have some leeway, you just don’t want to take a lot.

  Here’s the point where you can either press the cheese without a mold,
or use the mold.
(OK, who read the Choose-Your-Own-Adventure books in junior high?)

 

 

Milk Handling

Milk Handling

It All Starts with the Milk

Finally in 2013 I got my beautiful stainless steel bucket from Hoegger’s.  I love having the milk filtered right away,

So you’ve got the beautiful, healthy goats and they are giving you all this wonderful milk. Yay! Having learned from trial and error, research and application, I want to share how I  ensure that my primary cheese ingredient stays clean and fresh-tasting.

Which leads directly to one of my pet peeves: the description of goat milk or cheese as tasting “goaty.”  What? If you’ve had fresh milk, as in, the doe’s still there and you’re trying the milk, in my experience it tastes rich and creamy. That’s it.  Our job is to keep it that way, and any time I try store-bought goat cheese, at home or at a restaurant, and it does actually taste “goaty” – I wonder about the milk handling.

I am a disciple of Dr. David B. Fankhauser when it comes to milk handling, and I learned the hard way – my milk getting that funky, “goaty” taste after a day or two in the fridge, when it started out so smooth and yummy.  It was a disappointing “Ick” for me and I did go through a period of thinking, well, I guess goat milk is just like that.  Thank goodness that’s not true, because I love my goats, and that’s non-negotiable!

So read what Dr. Fankhauser has to say about Handling Fresh Raw Milk, and give his method a try if you want.  It works for me, and my family and friends love my dense, soft chevre with a fresh, mellow taste. There are people who do love the “goatiness”…tho often they tend to be those who don’t know the nitty-gritty of the farm.  I don’t deny their pleasure in the taste, to each their own and the world would be boring any other way…but for me, if I get that taste, I know I messed up somewhere along the way.

And honestly, if the steps of proper milk-handling seem like a pain in the neck to you, as they did to me when I first read them…you get used to it, you get the routine down and it’s easy, no big deal.

If you need any advice getting this going, I’d be glad to help.

 

DHI – Milk Testing

DHI – Milk Testing

Getting Started in DHI/ Milk Testing

Guinevere McIntyre, from original posting on the IDGA website

Here’s a good old cliche that is certainly true for the Dairy Herd Improvement (or DHI, DHIR, DHIA) program:  It is easier than you think!

Why would one be interested in the program in the first place?  You get tangible evidence of your herd’s milk production and can track each goat individually, getting information on quantity and butterfat and protein content percentages.   That all helps with management and breeding decisions, and can also earn your does some milking stars and Top Ten status, if you are doing it through ADGA.  And there’s more – not only are you learning about and promoting your own herd, the doe’s stats are entered into breed averages that help with the enhancement of that breed and dairy goats in general.  This is the type of info that the dairy cow world has in abundance – as dairy goat owners, we are working on getting there!

Here I will give you the very basics to get started, including links that will provide further details.

You will need:

  1. A tester
  2. A calibrated scale
  3. Contact with the DHI lab of your choice
  4. Enrollment with ADGA if desired

THE TESTER:  The requirements for a tester are simple, and once you’ve made contact with your DHI lab, they will help your tester get certified and ready to go. The tester cannot be a relative or anyone with a vested interest in your herd, but beyond those simple restrictions, it can be just about anyone.  Ideally you’ll want someone responsible (who will show up on test day!) and with an eye for detail for careful milk weight readings, getting sterile milk samples for each doe, and filling out the paperwork.  (Again, I promise, all very straight-forward stuff.)

THE SCALE:  You can spring for a digital scale, or go for a simpler hanging scale.  It does need to be calibrated – possibly at a local lab or your local post office may be able to do it.  I send mine in to my DHI lab, and they calibrate it for a nominal fee.  This has to be done annually, so I do it every January.

THE DHI LAB:  A good helpful DHI lab makes all of this easy.  Mine is wonderful and so accommodating with any question I have.  I use the lab at Langston University, managed by Eva Vasquez.  Follow this link for contact info for Langston as well as a complete list of labs that work with ADGA:  http://adga.org/forms/list-of-affiliates/

ADGA:  If you are doing this to improve your goat herd, most likely you will want to link your DHI testing through ADGA, so this information will get entered into their genetics website and your does will be eligible for Top Ten lists and milking charts.  Follow this link to set this up with ADGA:  http://adga.org/steps-for-adga-dhir/

There are different programs of ADGA testing that are outlined in the above link.  Owner sampler is very attractive to a lot of people as they do not have to coordinate with an outside tester, but does not qualify the does for Top Ten.  The standard program DHI-20, once described to me as the “gold standard,” involves once-a-month tests with your tester running the tests, taking the weights and pulling a milk sample from each doe.  Then you mail in the milk samples and the weight results and you’re done.  You indicate when the doe is dried up and then start up again a week after they freshen.  This is the test I use, and falling into a routine with it was quick and easy.

At first I was intimidated about starting a DHI program here, but in the end the process was (and continues to be!) smooth and straight-forward.  Along with ADGA’s linear appraisals, what I learn from the milk tests provides important insight as I continue to work to improve my herd.
ADDENDUM 4-20-14:  On the IDGA website, I reprinted an excellent write-up on starting DHI, with the kind permission of the author, Kristie of Land of Havilah Nubians.  Please visit this link to get more info:  http://www.iowadairygoat.org/dhimore.html

Polio

Polio

Judi Nayeri
Ma’s Acres Dairy Goats
Bondurant, IA

Originally appeared in the IDGA newsletter, reprinted here with kind permission of Judi Nayeri.

Foreword:  Judi Nayeri raises a lovely herd of Alpine and Nubian dairy goats in central Iowa, and is also a doctor for humans.  We experienced our first case of goat polio in the summer of 2014 – when I called Judi to tell her about the disorientation, diarrhea, drooling, and general weakness I was seeing in my then-7-month-old doe Naomi, she immediately said it sounds like polio.  I didn’t believe that was it at first, but I am very very glad that I treated with thiamin anyway, and lots of it, over a 3 day period. Naomi had entirely lost her vision and there was one scary low point where she was lying flat out on her side, and just generally looked like she was in very bad shape.  Her return to normalcy was rapid and by the end of 3 days, she was completely back to normal, literally as if nothing had happened.  I did treat with more thiamin than was prescribed – she received 8 cc every 3 to 6 hours for the first 48 hours, and every 12 hours for the next couple days.  If it ever happens again here, I will again treat with large quantities of thiamin, rather than risk not giving enough.  As Judi points out, you just can’t overdose on thiamin, they will pee out what they don’t need.  – Guinevere McIntyre

Over the years I’ve received many calls about ill goats with polio-like symptoms. Many of those have been treated successfully, so I hope this will be helpful to you. My first experience with polio was about ten years ago. A Nubian yearling was in a breeding pen. When I did my routine check, she was “down” in her hindquarters. No matter how hard she tried the best she could achieve was a sitting position. She was immediately transported to the ISU Veterinarian Clinic in Ames. She was treated for tetanus, bacterial infection and polio. Happily she recovered fully. A few years later a goat “went down” at a very hot county fair. A vet was called and she was treated for polio. She was also blind but within the next few weeks she recovered fully including her sight.

Polio in goats is not a contagious disease but a vitamin deficiency. Goats and other ruminants are dependent on thiamine in the rumen which metabolizes glucose into carbohydrates. The carbohydrates are necessary to maintain healthy brain cells.  When something occurs to disrupt the pH balance in the rumen, “friendly” thiamine producing organisms can’t function causing a failure in the cascade causing brain cell death.  Subsequent brain edema occurs causing a variety of neurological symptoms.

Neurological symptoms may include one or more of the following: weakness, staggering, tremors, blindness ( which may last several weeks after recovery), posturing, diarrhea, decreased appetite, increased aggression, increased temperature, increased respiratory rate, decreased heart rate or nystagmus (rapid eye movement).  Rumen motility remains normal. Star-gazing is very common early symptom. Our goats are very attentive, when one stares past us, into space or ignores us (when not preoccupied) it is time for concern.  Remember, anything that negatively affects the rumen environment can disrupt the “good” microorganisms, bacillus sp., clostridium sporogenes, and b. aneurolyticus, and hinder their thiamine production. The other consequence is to encourage organisms that produce thiaminases which catabolize or break down the thiamine. Either way the result is thiamine deficiency. A major cause is feeding a diet rich in concentrate ration and low in roughage. Other causes may include but are not limited to prolonged treatment with higher than recommended doses of Corid (amprolium), deworming, grazing on recently fertilized pasture, high sulfur intake (as from water), and rarely published but one of the most common causes I have seen, STRESS.

There are several diseases which can mimic polio. CAE, listeriosis, enterotoxemia, toxemia of pregnancy, grain poisoning, plant poisoning, rabies and tetanus; most commonly tetanus and listeriosis. Tetanus can be differentiated by tickling the eyelid; if the third eyelid flashes across the eye that is pathonomic for tetanus otherwise it is Polio. Also in tetanus the joints cannot be manually bent while in polio they are flexible.  It is sometimes advantageous to treat with Procaine Penicillin to cover listeriosis, in doses high enough to cross the blood-brain barrier. Use 1.5ml/25# body weight or 6ml per 100# body weight of 300,000 Iu/ml. Tetanus can be covered with 1cc of tetanus antitoxin.

Treatment of the thiamine deficiency is simple. The literature varies greatly on dose, route and frequency of treatment.  I usually use 1-2cc of 200mg/ml on a small kid and 6-8 cc on an adult animal, IM. This can be repeated in 24 hours if needed. I called a ruminant veterinarian at ISU and he suggested 5mg/ # IM or if the animal is extremely ill 5mg/# IM and IV simultaneously. Repeat injection daily for 2-3 days if necessary.  Thiamine is cheap and it is water soluble so overdose is not a concern. The animal will excrete anything it doesn’t use. You won’t overdose.

Most of the literature talks of a winter disease, but actually, it is a year ’round disease. My cases have always been in the summer when they are in milk and pushing feed based on production. In the winter my goats are on maintenance only. In summer we are also under a lot more stress with showing and weaning. Remember, early treatment is the key. Last summer my son was walking through the barn and noticed a doeling standing in a corner with tremors and staggering when she walked. She was treated immediately, she was stronger in 10-15 minutes and fully recovered in about thirty minutes, but we did continue to watch her for 24 hours. Length of recovery will depend on how long the animal has been sick.  If unsure, it is better to treat the animal than risk losing the goat. If you wait, by 2-3 days it will be too late. Remember thiamine is water soluble; you can’t harm a goat by misdiagnosis or over treatment. If unsure, TREAT.

Thiamine is cheap but it is prescription so get some from your vet as well as procaine Penicillin and Tetanus Antitoxin and keep these on hand. Goats never get sick when the vet is in. You can always call the vet in the morning to follow-up, but TREAT ASAP.
 

Coccidiosis

Coccidiosis

Causes, Prevention, Treatment, & More

Sue Reith
Carmelita Toggs
Bainbridge, WA

Followed by Reality Check!  By Bill Braun, DVM

printed here with kind permission of Sue Reith

What is the best preventative measure for coccidiosis……and if that doesn’t work what is the best treatment?

Very clean kidding pens and housing facilities for the new babies are the best preventative.  It is well known that the first kids born, if they are born on clean bedding and housed in clean pens, are very growthy in the spring, and their own immune systems, as they develop over the next few months, are very able to make antibodies to the few coccidia they are exposed to from the momentof birth.  If the next and subsequent kids are born on that same bedding and housed also in the same kid pens, without benefit of complete sanitization between groups, then the later in the season they are born, the more exposure they have to the coccidia building up in the bedding from that critical time ofbirth when they have absolutely no immune systems going for them at all, and by spring they are generally looking rather scrawny and undersized, a classic symptom of coccidiosis, in contrast to the first kids born that season in the clean environment, that are growthy and thriving.

It is important to add here that should those later kids fail to be treated to correct that scrawny and undersized condition, their future health will be permanently affected.  The presence of coccidia at the level which causes obviously impaired growth and condition in the kid will, at the same time, cause great damage to the walls of the intestinal tract through which the nutrients pass into the goat’s system.  When this sort of internal damage takes place it is irreversible, and the animal’s ability to absorb the nutrients it ingests will be permanently curtailed, subjecting it, should it survive, to a lifetime of unthriftiness.  It goes without saying that the sooner coccidiosis is treated in a kid during that first year of life, the more likely it will be to be able to live a productive life.

The best treatment is the oral sulfa.  You can buy Albon, or its generic, sulfadimethoxine, recommended over some of the other forms of sulfa for its only-one-dose-per-day property.  You can buy it in the catalogs. Sulfadimethoxine is available in the form of: gallons of oral sulfa (intended to put in large quantities into the cattle waterers, so it needs to be broken down into kid-sized individual doses); and boluses; and tablets (prescription item);and injectable… And you need to dose the INDIVIDUAL kids by weight, doubling the 1st dose, and then giving a regular dose the next 4 days after that, which will do a very good job of wiping out the coccidia in them at the time you treat.  The dose of oral Albon (generic is sulfadimethoxine) is 12.5 milligrams per pound. Remember, milligrams (mg) are not the same as millileters (ml). The label will tell you how many mg there are in every ml.

Overview of Coccidia Treatments Used Routinely for Goats by Sue Reith

Coccidiosis is treated in a variety of ways. Treatments with amprolium (CoRid is a common brand name), and decoquinate (Deccox is a common brand name), and sulfa, sulfadimethoxine, sulfamethazine (Albon is a common brand name),are all routinely used to control this problem.

Amprolium is a coccidiastat, which means that instead of killing off the coccidia it simply keeps it from producing for a couple of weeks to slow down its advance in the system.  A serious downside is that it is a thiaminase substance, so that when dosed in sufficient quantities it has the capability of destroying the necessary thiamine within a goat’s rumen, causing potentially lethal polioencephalomalacia in the goat as a result.

Decoquinate is generally fed routinely and long term to young kids to prevent the development of coccidia within them in the early stages, before the immune system kicks in.  Its downside is that it is expensive and requires daily dosing in the milk or the feed.

Sulfa is the most effective way to treat coccidia in the goat.  Sulfadimethoxine has the advantage management-wise over other forms of sulfa, because it requires only 1X daily treatment, as opposed to the 2X daily treatment required by all other forms of sulfa.  I am personally highly in favor of dosing each kid individually by weight, to ensure maximum efficiency in the treatment.  Also, while kids are being treated with sulfa it is essential to have plenty of freshwater available to them at all times.

Albon is the best known brand of sulfadimethoxine, and there are several generic brands as well.  Additionally, there are several non-prescription forms of sulfadimethoxine available for use. Sulfa in all of the available forms is dosed at the rate of 25mg/1lb of goat the first day, and 12.5mg/1lb of goat daily for the next 4 days.

The available (non-prescription) forms are:

  1. Oral liquid, 1 gallon, 12.5%, designed to be used in the water of cattle, or as an individual drench.
  2. Injectable, 40%, designed to be used intravenously, but routinely administered by owners to their goats subcutaneously.
  3. Boluses, 5 grams each, designed to be dosed orally with a balling gun.

Sulfadimethoxine 12.5% oral liquid is in a gallon bottle for use in drinking water when treating cattle, and it can be used as a drench as well.  It is dose done time daily for 5 days in a row.  When using it as a drench, the first oral dose (always double) is 20cc/100lbs of goat.  The next 4 oral doses are 10cc/100lb of goat.

Sulfadimethoxine 40% inj contains 400mg of sulfadimethoxine per ml, which at the rate of 25mg per pound of goat the first day, and then 12.5mg per pound daily for the next 4 days, would be injected SQ at the rate of 1ml per 16 lb of goat the first day, then 1ml per 32 lbs of goat daily for the remaining 4 days of treatment.

Sulfadimethoxine is also available in boluses, with each goat/sheep sized bolus containing 5 grams of sulfadimethoxine.  If using these, 1/2 bolus would treat 100lb of goat the first day, and 1/2 bolus would treat 200lb of goat daily for the next 4 days.  A balling gun would be used for administration.

Addendum 2016/ G. McIntyre – we have been using a product that was not common when this article was written.  Toltrazuril (Baycox) is very effective for us, a simple preventative in the form of 1cc/5lb doses given to kids starting at 4 weeks, and following up once a month until 6 months of age.  (Same dosage for treatment.)

Reality Check!!!

By Bill Braun, DVM.

Dr Braun is currently an associate professor of veterinary medicine in the College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri. He previously taught at the School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University. He is a board certified theriogenologist, a recognized specialist in animal reproduction. In the past he has been an associate and contributing editor and author for the Dairy Goat Journal. Dr. Braun just finished as section editor and author for the section on goat reproduction to be published this year. (1996)

Coccidiosis is a disease and it is a parasite.  As a parasite it needs a host of some sort in order to live and reproduce. Coccidia DO NOT live in the ground, they eventually die in the ground.  The only part of their life cycle that is in the ground, and therefore outside of the host’s body is in the form of oocysts.  Think of these as eggs, as in intestinal worm eggs.  It’s the same sort of principle.  Oocysts on the ground will eventually die, the speed of that die off depends on the temperature, amount of sunlight and how much moisture is present.  Freezing (winter) will kill them and hot, dry conditions will also do them in. The reason it seems that coccidia are more active as the weather warms up and the rains come is because fewer of the oocysts are dying off, therefore, there are more present to infest or infect their next victim.

The victim: Each coccidia species has its own particular host and will not tolerate another.  There are coccidia for chickens, for sheep, for goats, for cows and so on. They typically do not cross to other species, other than sheep and goats share a few of the coccidia types.  Their usual victims are the young, in this case the current year’s kid crop.  The young pick up the oocysts from eating things that are contaminated with feces (goat berries) that contain the oocysts.  The parasite breaks free of the shell of the oocyst in the victims gut and begins its life’s cycle. The only place a coccidia can live is in the gut.  It usually takes 2-4 weeks for the life cycle to be complete to the point of that victim shedding its own oocysts in its feces.  Now you know why you don’t have trouble with coccidiosis in kids until they are 2.5 to 4 weeks old.

Immunity: As long as the coccidia doesn’t kill its host, the host will gradually become partially immune to the parasite.  So as the animal becomes older, it builds up its immunity until coccidia are usually no longer a problem.  Coccidiostats (rumensin, lascalocid, sulfas, etc) help the victim keep down the number of coccidia in its body so that the victim can live long enough to develop that immunity.  The coccidiostats don’t totally eliminate the coccidia from the body, just reduce their numbers and the severity of any clinical problems.  Coccidiostats like amprolium (Corid) tie up thiamin and make it unavailable to the host, thereby causing polio in some over-treated animals.  Adult goats have coccidia in their gut.  They have learned to live with the bug and have developed some immunity.  If the adult animal becomes debilitated from some disease or condition (starvation) it may break with coccidiosis.  Otherwise, the adult animal does not have clinical coccidiosis.

If, by chance (like being raised on wire or slats like little pigs), an animal makes it to adulthood without experiencing coccidia, they will die rapidly from exposure to the bug.  They have developed no immunity to the disease and are very susceptible. Most (all) producers want to have their animals exposed to coccidia at an early age so they can develop immunity and be protected later in life.